In addition to their initial training, some psychiatrists and psychologists may undergo additional training that allows them to acquire and master specific psychotherapy tools such as EMDR, behavioral and cognitive therapies, hypnosis, psychoanalysis, etc.
As for the use of the title of psychotherapist, it is protected and regulated since 2010 in France. As such, it has an Adeli number and must be registered in the national register of psychotherapists. There is no university training; the title is issued on the basis of an evaluation by the Regional Health Agency of the skills developed or the training followed. Consultations are not reimbursed.
For all other designations (e.g., psychopractitioner), caution is advised.